Revolt and the other Biafrans

BiafransWITH a fresh impetus from some Igbo youths, the resurgent clamour for Biafra has taken a contagious character. Both at home and abroad, these youths have openly demonstrated their resolve to actualise the dream of a Biafra Republic.

While the youths  have  embarked  on protests  in some  south eastern states  in support of  their quest, their  relations  in overseas countries like  France  are tearing their Nigerian passports. Still, others are threatening to bomb the Nigerian embassy as President Muhammadu Buhari visits India for the third summit of the India-Africa Forum holding in Delhi.

This is happening at a time that the Movement for the Actualisation of the Sovereign State of Biafra (MASSOB) has broken into various factions. But even at the height of its influence, MASSOB did not make as much impact that the youths under the aegis of the Indigenous People of Biafra are making.

But the government’s reaction to the development should go beyond the official preoccupation with squelching the agitation for Biafra.  Even though most of these youths calling for secession from Nigeria did not witness the civil war of between 1967 and 1970, there is the possibility of the haunting memory of the crisis.

This is especially so when they read books on the period that depict the immiseration triggered by the war.  But it is on account of  such a memory on which is etched the  picture of  grisly  deaths in their millions, the starvation  and malnutrition of children in their millions  and the wanton rapes  of mothers and daughters  that  the youths  should  hesitate to call for war to prise themselves out of Nigeria.  Perhaps, these youths are not even familiar with the war literature of Biafra and other wars in which human suffering is the common denominator. This is likelihood since most of the pictures of the protesters show youths who were obviously born before the war.

The relevance of Biafra to the polity today should not be its identification with a specific geographical location occupied only by the Igbo. For since independence, all state policies and programmes have been designed in a way to aid the perpetuation of the oppression of the majority of the citizens.

In  the north,  west, south and east of this  country, the  citizens  have  always been oppressed  in  every sphere of life: there are no  roads, no  educational opportunities,  the  political and  economic spaces have been hijacked  by the rich and powerful in the society, among others. These rich and powerful Nigerians who constitute the leadership in different parts of the country have neglected to improve the well-being of their fellow citizens. What have the northern elite who have been in power done for the poor people in their midst? While the children of the elite are in some of the best schools overseas, they neglect the citizens at home so that they could perpetually be their political thugs.

After using the poor, they would prefer their children to remain as almajiris so that they can also serve the children of the elite as a means of getting political power and economic prosperity.  How about the south south? The oil resources of the region have only made a handful of people stupendously rich. The bulk of the population is still living in abject penury.

Thus, the ogre on the back of the Igbo today is not just the rest part of the country. It is the ruling class that does not want to share the resources of the state equitably.  The upshot is that even  if a republic of Biafra  is created today, the hope  of those youths  who  are ready  to  die for it now to benefit from it would remain an intractable mirage .

A new Biafra would emerge with a new set of oppressors who would deny the bulk of the population equitable access to the wealth of their country.  In fact, the  so-called  leaders  in the south east who are watching  from  the sidelines now would  transform into new the leaders of a Biafra Republic that is created out of the south east. Worse still, they would bring back their children from overseas to lord it over the youths who are now fighting for a separate country.

The protesting Igbo youths should find better channels to express their energies. There is no doubt that despite their marginalisation, the Igbo have recorded tremendous successes in business.  In fact, there is no area of life in contemporary Nigeria where they have not excelled except in being at the centre where they can control the political levers.

However, if their commitment to Biafra remains inflexible despite the odds against them, they could make it less onerous and selfish.  For one, they must realise that we have been told that one reason the Biafran dream was aborted was its alienation of prominent leaders of the south east such as Nnamdi Azikiwe who felt not being carried along by Chukwuemeka Odumegwu-Ojukwu. Now, the contemporary Igbo leaders as represented by the governors have not hidden their disdain for the quest for Biafra.

The south east youths should remove the concept of Biafra from the context that limits it to only Igbo people. They  should  expand  it to include  all those  who have and  are still suffering  marginalisation  in  different parts of the country . In this  regard,  they  would come to understand  that even those  they  now  regard as their enemies  are suffering  the same  fate  like them.  They all have a common enemy. And this is the predatory leadership of the country that would not allow the equitable distribution of the nation’s resources.  When  the Igbo Biafrans  align with  other Nigerians  in different parts of the country  who have been marginalised, then they  could  chart a path  to freedom from their oppressors and secure a Biafra Republic  – a country devoid  of the haunting injustice and inequality  that stalk Nigeria today.

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40 Comments
  • Interest

    New Biafra struggle has always carried the people of Niger-Delta (though nothing like this name in geography, it was simply created to divide old eastern region) along in this struggle for emancipation of old Eastern region. It is now left for any interested persons from Niger-Delta to join. The recent massive pro-Biafran protest in Rivers( originally known as Egwuocha) was not done by Igbos alone. Pls let us shame agents of divide and rule form Hausa/Fulani and Yoruba parasitic ethnics. Why is Hausa/Fulani always referred as one, while the same people will come and deceive us that South-east and South-south are not one indivisible country called Biafra?

    • seven seven

      May you be blessed nwa China eke. you have said it all

    • Don_C

      The old Eastern region is wrong.Biafra was there when the British arrived in the 1800’s. The Biafrans fought the British to a standstill and they decided to punish them just like the Binis because they all rejected colonization.

      The British know where Biafra was and they have the treaties and agreements. When you hear a so called Niger Delta say I am not Igbo, in his mind he or she is runing away from the oppression but the British knows who the Biafrans they fought in the 1800’s were. They may not say it but they remember the ekumeku resistance in Asaba areas. The Biafran question is a British made problem because of the fraud used in laying the foundation for Nigeria. Biafra was there when the British arrived. Biafrans fought the British and nearly defeated them. The British defeat of Biafra saw them take on Benin and when the British defeated Benin, they amalgamated Biafra and Benin in 1861.You can read it here http://goo.gl/yTc5jC. The ekumeku Massacres and other pockets of resistance made the British choose to punish the Biafrans. When they annexed the North and Lagos, they felt the Northerners were easier to use as a willing tool for house slave against the Biafrans and Benis. You can see list of wars here http://goo.gl/j9uj31You can see the map of Africa with Biafra then here http://goo.gl/s8POuz

      Its just the British effort to use the Hausa/Fulani to subjugate blacks, The British fought the last attempt at restoring Biafra in 1967 using the Hausa/Fulani. The lies used in establishing Nigeria is the cause of all the problems.

  • Kalu Agwu NwaBiafra

    Biased gutter journalism from the pit of hell.let us have our freedom first.don’t worry about how Biafra will look like when we get it.don’t bother who and who that will be the leaders when Biafra is restored.so to your brain,you want Biafrans to tell your so called other nigerians marginalized to wake up from their sufferings?please leave us alone.nonsense report

  • Andy Peter Andy

    Biafra is a hope every former Eastern region not igbos,Igbo is part of Biafra likewise other ethnic language who made up Biafra,and point of correction whoever write this article..The Biafra we are fighting for will never include those gullible south east leaders you mentioned that sitting on the side line,those people will never be part of any formation,the youth and able vision people will stare the affair of New nation where everyone will be catered for ,if Biafra we are fighting for right now would ever be like Nigeria then no reason we will fight for it.we are fight for free society where corruption will not be the talk of the day,i bet you the write to listen to Our Director and learn how things has falling apart with your Zoo called Nigeria.

  • Obiadada

    Unintelligent piece written by a drunken journalist

    • Sam Nwankwo

      Bless you

  • ogonna igwilo

    Lagos Ibadan express way media house at it again.Biafrans are more knowledgeable than ever before. So take your advice elsewhere.

    • peter .mokwuah

      what these machinary jounalist forgets to say, if Buhari at UN ask for free Palestine and goes home to brutalize the Igbos, what a joker. Becuase if oppression by the blood suckers who steals the resources of the country and deprives the oil producing areas even drinking water duo to recklessness of the colonial master owned oil companies.
      Obasanjos hair dresser was had to have oil block what a country. The igbo haters go on the internt to bash the Biafra issue, but forgot that nigeria army had to employ, Egypians pilots to bomb women in the market and schools, is that not war crime? they used their colonial master,Britain, Russia and other superpower to their aid, yet for three years they could not deat only five states now, then called biafra. See for yourself the Fulani boko haram, you want to lockup Mr.kanu but Buhari said after loosing proir election that he will make Jonathan goverment ungovernorable.The truith was that the so called Nigeria heros of the civil war had boasted that they will overan Biafra in 12hours, and with all the foregin support could not do it even with embargo in three years.
      It is about time the so called Nigeria approve the CONFAB, and decentralize power at the center to allow regional resources to be used for that regions benefit and development. Mark my word until the Fulanis stop their born to rule attitude Nigeria will continue to suffer. The Pesident is yet to condem ,his fulani brother treament of Mr. Falae in his own backgard what a country. How does fulani herbsmen get A47, when Nigerian Army are been overran by fulani boko haram, what a country.

  • Pete Guy

    No need for more contribution to this piece of junk. U blessed children of the most high have said it all. In Biafra we stand.

  • Zubis Emmanuel

    if other parts of the country are suffering then why cant they rise up??? why are they supporting the government to fight and quench Biafran freedom? why are they threatening for another war if Igbos want to break away? if they are not happy they should rise up like the igbos and help break the country so every part will peacefully go and start developing their land…..Ariwa and Oduduwa people are happy with nigeria and they are enjoying it that is why they want one nigeria ….

  • kingjayzy

    Muha mad Buhari surely die in India, just mark my words!

    • Okeke nwankwo

      dont say that pls, we are not interested in his death at all. Let him live and set our people free simple

    • Bello Barriga

      Nonsense!!! Are you God who disposes? Are you sure you will not be six feet under before BUHARI? Sai BABA.

  • Tousjour Nice

    first of all allow Biafra to be.

  • Chidi Njoku

    Guardian , you are very wrong, Biafra is ours, if we get Biafra, i prefer to suffer in biafra than to Die as a nigerai, so you should talk about your own Problem, Biafra is not your problem, We do not need oil, we have been surviving in nigeria without oil since after the war with only 20 naira giving to us by Awolowo, and stolen all the Biafra ppls money, Now what we need is only freedom, forget about how we can survive, I can feed myself and my family no matter little my income maybe as long as i have my freedom as a Biafran, i will be fullfilled

  • KWOY

    It is sufficient you admit the Igbo marginalization

  • Okeke nwankwo

    The writer wrote from plain Nigerian perspective. Biafras agitation is fueled by the same ruling class who perpetrate dehumanization and marginalization of Igbos and easterners. I personally did not see the war but have read of it in books.It pains me that my people were so humiliated by Britain and Nigeria. After the war Gen Gowon said no victor no vanquish and had the 3Rs, reintegration and restructuring never took place in PH, Enugu, Calabar, Uyo, Owerri etc eastern states.Instead it was happening at Lagos and the north where the war was not fought. Come to the east and see that federal presence is grossly lacking. Its false to say that Igbos do not want Hausa man to rule.Igbos voted Babangida, voted Shagari, voted Yaradua, voted defunct NPN Alhaji Shinkafi, last presidential candidate massively. But we were left with nothing but false promises. 2nd Niger bridge is a mirage till OBJ taunted Igbos with it. Igbos have to return through Yoruba land till date if not for little track road at Enugu using Ethiopian airline. It is grossly wrong for federal government to hold Nnamdi Kanu.You cannot beat a child and tell him not to cry. I was living at Lagos before coming overseas to live. In those days Yorubas had OPC.Gani Adams was saying all Nnamdi Kanu is saying, OBJ DID NOT KILL NOR ARREST HIM. Nigeria have re INVIGORATED DESIRE AND LOVE FOR BIAFRA BY ARRESTING NNAMDI KANU. All Igbos both educated and non educated are in support courtesy of Nigeria government advertising of his goodness

  • Okwudili

    stupid input

  • nnanta

    This is disgusting . Do you realise that the protests in Port Harcourt were by indigenes of Port Harcourt ?
    Please stop this misinformation.
    Americans teach their children the history of America especially the civil war while in Nigeria, no one apart from Igbos want to hear about Biafra ! The truth is staring Nigeria in the face when the likes of T.Y. Danjuma is still gloating about the civil war and Gowon making the insolent remarks of his masters.
    We must face reality as a nation in order to make positive progress !

  • tunde008

    Biafra is a fraud.copy copy copy cat. copying niger delta militant, and boko haram.What has biafra gained from violence,marginalization and poverty.With all the self acclaimed superiority of intelligence they are professing violence.Nobody is holding you down go develop your area and show the other parts of the country why we should listen to you.Nobody understands your complaints.This writer is very right.Ojukwu who cajoled you to the first war ran away after subjecting innocent boys to their early death.If you love GEJ so much invite him to your meeting and Iam 150% sure he will not honor it.Those shouting biafra now did not witness the civil war,they shuold ask their parents and if they are honest enough will tell them it is not what one will have to experience

    • peter .mokwuah

      TUNDE 008 Iam sure you are on psycothropic medication ,if not where were you when a noble yoruba man Abiola, or Kudrat was killed. The Buhari kins men just humiliated another noble Yorubaman Mr.Olu Falae and you are busy dishing out gargage. Mr. kwakwazo had just insulted Yorubas,and to add insult to injury ask them to SHUT UP. They devasted Mr.Falae farmer and you like Ibo haters are cowarding around. If you not get, let me use kwakwanso word TUNDE SHUT UP FOOL.

      • peter .mokwuah

        Tunde do you need water or ogogoro to swallow your medication or have taking my candid andvise to shut up. you seem to lack basic sense. I will not call it common sense because it is clear that you have no sence and sense is not common and you don’t seem to be born with one. Ibo came to Lagos because it was a federal Capital and not because it happen to be a state capital. You seem to take pleasure in bashing Ibos ,but your brother General was just humiliated,sacked and imprisoned for running away on the sound of fulani boko haram gun. Iam sure that if you hear the sound of Biafran ogbu-nigwe bOMB ,you will be the first person to jump in to that Lagos lagoon mentioned by the OBA.

    • peter .mokwuah

      Tunde since you must have taking a pill or two today, I want to tell that Ibos came to Lagos because it was a federal capital and not for state capital. You are busy bashing the Ibos but you brother General was just humilited,sacked and imprisioned, but you busy bashing the Ibos who held Nigeria army and their world superpower friends to mezimarizing embarassment for 3years. You have to search your bed before you lay down on it, wasn’t your brother olisiego obulusunjo BOBOON OF OTA that killed Felas mother and Chief Bola Ije. Iam sure that if you hear the sound of ogbu-nigwe by Biafran Bomb, you will be the first to jump in that lagoon mentioned by the OBA.A good Yorubaman does not talk like you hater foolish Ibo bashers. Your are running to fulaniman for job. A fulaniman removed capital from Lagos to Abuja and your still talking trash.

    • Ogeson

      Tunde, I know you are one of those that the uneducated illiterate of your president paid to discourage Biafrans from going to the promise Land. Why are you so much afraid of Biafrans leaving your zoo of a country? I know that if you are better than Biafrans, you would have been encouraging you people to let Biafrans go but bcos you know it for sure that the zoo called Nigeria is finished without Biafrans, that is why you are trembling by hearing that the choosing is about to leave Egypt. You people should go and learn how to take care of yourselves after we might gone to the promise Land.

    • Don_C

      If Biafra is a fraud, why was it there before the British came in the 1800’s? Why did Biafra fight the British against colonization? Please reserach about Biafra -it was there before the British came and not born in 1967 as being peddled about. http://goo.gl/yTc5jC

      The Biafran question is a British made problem because of the fraud used in laying the foundation for Nigeria. Biafra was there when the British arrived. Biafrans fought the British and nearly defeated them. The British defeat of Biafra saw them take on Benin and when the British defeated Benin, they amalgamated Biafra and Benin in 1861.You can read it here http://goo.gl/yTc5jC. The ekumeku Massacres and other pockets of resistance made the British choose to punish the Biafrans. When they annexed the North and Lagos, they felt the Northerners were easier to use as a willing tool for house slave against the Biafrans and Benis. You can see list of wars here http://goo.gl/j9uj31

      You can see the map of Africa with Biafra then here http://goo.gl/s8POuz

      Its just the British effort to use the Hausa/Fulani to subjugate blacks, The British fought the last attempt at restoring Biafra in 1967 using the Hausa/Fulani. The lies used in establishing Nigeria is the cause of all the problems.

    • ….GBAM!…..Okay we Yorubas have agreed that all your states constitute your BIAFRA…please when you are going home this xmas pack all your things from Yorubaland and refuse to come back…then we will take you seriously…or is there any toll gate on Shagamu-Benin expressway holding you back from going to your Biafra?…please when going take along all your fake spare parts,fake drugs,fake generators,fake electronics along and when you get to Ore shake off the sand of Yorubaland from your feet and say BIAFRA FOREVER,LAGOS NEVER…okay?…instead of taking your case to the UN and the Hague you keep harassing everybody saying they don’t want you to have your Biafra…who said so?…Just ask for your independence as required by law….see the CATALANS and what they are doing now after many useless years of wrongful accusations and bloodshed…take LEGAL,CONSTITUTIONAL STEPS TO ACTIVATE YOUR BIAFRA……all these forums u are making noises on are like customary court with no head or tail compared to THE HAGUE..

  • Bello Barriga

    “Those who forget their history,” so begins a popular phrase, “always make the same mistake.” Those advocating for biafra and MOSSOB must take cues from what is happening between Israel and Palestine – from time immemorial, Palestinian youths are in disarray, dying in millions, and can only throw stones and bricks with no desired results. Millennium Igbo youth cannot muster the brain power necessary for seccession. Why? Because they are in love with money and what money can do. In other words, they rather be selling motor parts, building materials, cars, food stuffs, electronics, and anything sellable rather than answering the call for Igbo unification. Let any Igbo leader wort any thing make the call Ojukwu made – all Igbo must leave their possessions wherever and return HOME. Let us watch and see who move to the call. Stop wasting your precious time. Chuckwu Odumegwu Ojukwu had four BALLS between his legs. Present Igbos – both young and old have no balls. They wear women wrapper and dancing to Fuji music all over Lagos.

    • Evans

      You only think, but something is coming at you soon. Your Fuji or juju music has not eroded their brains of knowing when to go home and be with their people. You think money is still in control of majority of Biafrans? You’re wrong! Your Oba’s recent threat opened the eyes of those at ease in Lagos and am sure you are not thinking that any Igbo took it as a trivial statement.

    • Ogeson

      Barriga or whatever stupid name you call yourself, can you tell us why on earth you people cannot survive without the Biafrans. Are you people all that lazy that you cannot take care of yourselves without Biafrans? Or are you indirectly telling the world that Biafrans are the salt of the zoo call Nigeria? Your answers for yourself.

    • peter .mokwuah

      Barriga, even your name in American street slangs sucks. Your brainless aboki talk about Palestine youth throwing stones, that shows that you a fool. I thought you should be talking about Flying ogbunigwe rocket,Biafran shore battery and land ogbunigwe(mass killer). The Nigeria abokis in nigeria Armywere so scared about ogbunigwe, that they refused to cover during battles and were killed like dogs at Abagana, Enugwu Agidi , Azunmili sector. The shore battery at Onitsha sector and fishes in River Niger had a big Aboki meat sala for a while.

    • Don_C

      The Biafran question is a British made problem because of the fraud used in laying the foundation for Nigeria. Biafra was there when the British arrived. Biafrans fought the British and nearly defeated them. The British defeat of Biafra saw them take on Benin and when the British defeated Benin, they amalgamated Biafra and Benin in 1861.You can read it here http://goo.gl/yTc5jC. The ekumeku Massacres and other pockets of resistance made the British choose to punish the Biafrans. When they annexed the North and Lagos, they felt the Northerners were easier to use as a willing tool for house slave against the Biafrans and Benis. You can see list of wars here http://goo.gl/j9uj31

      You can see the map of Africa with Biafra then here http://goo.gl/s8POuz

      Its just the British effort to use the Hausa/Fulani to subjugate blacks, The British fought the last attempt at restoring Biafra in 1967 using the Hausa/Fulani. The lies used in establishing Nigeria is the cause of all the problems.

  • MaturedGuy

    Hmmm………..

  • Evans

    By your name spelling you must be from Edo or a primitive man from anywhere else other than Biafra. Listen Mr. Writer, trying to generalize this Biafran pursuit is not in any way going to stop BIAFRA. So, you are out of point. BIAFRA IS ALREADY HERE. If Yoruba wants to pursue her course, so good. Have the South-East and South-South not tolerated those leaders you refer to long enough? But this your present Pedophile President is worse than Abacha and has brought the most corrupt who try to force themselves on people as Leaders (Rivers Governor Wike’s overthrow a reference point). When you become a slave in your father’s house with all rights stripped, only then you will know what it feels like to seek to be free. You were made to drive flies away from your father-provided food and also be the security over the food, you are only allowed to salivate in hunger while an Hausa?Fulani eats the food, wash their hands and force you to drink the waste water and use it to bath. If you dare touch the food, you’ll be labelled a Militant and terrorist and locked up. When they are overfed, they use you to move the food to other nations with empty-belly from where their children unborn shall feed. Mr. Journalist, wake up! If you choose to keep suffering in slavery to Hausa/Fulani, good for you. The truth is that anyhow you live, you must die some day. Why not not do something that will better the lives of your descendants instead of keeping quiet (a pathway to their own slavery)? Why do you prefer to die like a fool and coward?

    On BIAFRA, the Igbos are just a part and believe this, the days all of you agents of pains have been using divide and rule are all gone. Everyone Biafran now knows the truth. Either MASSOB or IPOB or any other, can’t you see that the goal is the same. MASSOB failed because RALPH lost focus and went for the piece of porridge from the ZOO. Now, there are many MOSES ready to leave Egypt with her pleasures to suffer a while with God’s people (Israel) who are ultimately greater than Egypt. You somehow sound myopic when you said that the foreign-based sons of the political leaders shall be brought to lord it over the one that got Biafra, my question to you is “those visiting embassies in foreign lands protesting for BIAFRA, are they home-based that got Visas just to go and protest?” I’ve told you before to wake up! Take some time off Computer screen and use some cubes of ice water to wash your face.

    HOW DID NIGERIA TREAT IBRU and every Biafran major player in the Finance and Banking Industry? The deeds of Sanusi Lamido Sanusi as CBN governor left so many Biafrans in pain such that many could not recover till date. Did he not push for Islamic Banking? Did your Pedophile not try to rubbish Ngozi Okonjo Iweala through Oshimole just because she is from Biafra?The problem with all of you bread-seeking journalists is that you dont know when to drop your tools and act, you prefer to cover the event rather than being involved even when the case is critical and you can help to save lives. Is it so in US? No! You want to be like Christiana Amanpour of CNN but you dont want to do least of the things she does at critical situations.

  • Kceverest

    Nigeria journalists always writes lies and junks. what was your name before Nigeria was created in 1914? Nigeria has expired in 2014. Biafra must be restored, Biafra is my my home my NATION.

  • Chukwuani Chidiebere

    Biafra is the conscience and it’s consciousness in a people. Hence it never dies. long live Dir Nnamdi Kanu, long live republic of Biafra.

  • emmanuel kalu

    I think the writer is quite right in saying that all the oppressed should join in the fight against those that have looted the country. This is not just a fight for a region, it should be a fight for a better country, one that is progressing and not being looted by the elites.

  • Robertino

    I wonder why whenever there is a call for the actualization of biafra, eminent Nigerians from the north like Gowon would advice pro biafrans to cast their minds on the progrom of 1966 -67. That amounts to threatening them with yet another ethnic cleansing. Amnesty international pls take note.

  • Stan C. Nnaso

    This is just worthless. We are Biafra, we fight for our land. We not aligning with anyother region for our voices to be head. if other regions think they re being marginalized, let them wake up and fight for it. We dont beg anybody to join the movement, ITS THE SPIRIT THAT DOES

  • Don_C

    This writer is a lazy and selfish half educated Nigerian who cannot do simple research. He said there were demonstrations in the South-East because the demonstrations in Portharcourt are from the North-East in his selfish innuendo. Does he want to tell us that his education told him that Biafra only came in 1967 as being peddled by the British 419er?

    The Biafran question is a British made problem because of the fraud used in laying the foundation for Nigeria. Biafra was there when the British arrived. Biafrans fought the British and nearly defeated them. The British defeat of Biafra saw them take on Benin and when the British defeated Benin, they amalgamated Biafra and Benin in 1861.You can read it here http://goo.gl/yTc5jC. The ekumeku Massacres and other pockets of resistance made the British choose to punish the Biafrans. When they annexed the North and Lagos, they felt the Northerners were easier to use as a willing tool for house slave against the Biafrans and Benis. You can see list of wars here http://goo.gl/j9uj31

    You can see the map of Africa with Biafra then here http://goo.gl/s8POuz

    Its just the British effort to use the Hausa/Fulani to subjugate blacks, The British fought the last attempt at restoring Biafra in 1967 using the Hausa/Fulani. The lies used in establishing Nigeria is the cause of all the problems.

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