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How eating insects reduces risk of chronic diseases

ROASTED CRICKETS

Until now several studies have shown that besides the traditional use of insects such as crickets, termites and grasshoppers as part of the Nigerian diet for their nutritive values, they could be bioengineered for the treatment of cancer, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV), wounds, obesity, malnutrition among other benefits.

According to a 2013 report from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations (UN), around two billion people worldwide eat insects as part of a traditional diet – a practice known as entomophagy.

Beetles are the most commonly consumed insect, followed by caterpillars, bees, wasps, ants, grasshoppers, locusts, and crickets. All in all, more than 1,900 insect species are considered edible.

Entomophagy is a common practice in many parts of the world, including China, Africa, Asia, Australia, New Zealand, and some developing regions of Central and South America.

An earlier study published in the Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry found that insects could provide as much magnesium, iron, and other nutrients as steak.

And researchers at the American Chemical Society (ACS) found grasshoppers and crickets to be a far better source of many nutrients, particularly iron, compared to beef.

Grasshoppers, mealworms, termites and crickets all had higher concentrations of chemically available calcium, copper and zinc than the sirloin.

In Nigeria, termites are usually roasted and eaten as food, mostly during the rainy season.

Besides the use of termites as therapeutic resource for the treatment of asthma, hoarseness and sinusitis, wounds, malnutrition, nutrient deficiency and sickness of pregnant women, researchers have explored the use of insect natural products as potential source for alternative medicines.

Indian researchers from Department of Biological Sciences, Presidency University, Kolkata; Department of Zoology, Darjeeling Government College, West Bengal; and Department of Zoology, Scottish Church College, Kolkata explored developments in bioengineering natural products from insects with potential use in modern medicines as well as in utilisation of insects as models for studying essential mammalian processes such as immune responses to pathogens.

The study was published in World Science News.

Crickets promotes growth of good bacteria, reduces inflammation

But the most recent clinical trial published, last week, in Scientific Reports showed that consuming crickets can help support the growth of beneficial gut bacteria and that eating crickets is not only safe at high doses but may also reduce inflammation in the body.

Crickets, like other insects, contain fibres, such as chitin, that are different from the dietary fibre found in foods like fruits and vegetables.

Fibre serves as a microbial food source and some types promote the growth of beneficial bacteria, also known as probiotics.

The new University of Wisconsin-Madison, United States (U.S.), trial probed whether insect fibres may influence the bacteria found in the gastrointestinal tract.

More than two billion people around the world regularly consume insects, which are also a good source of protein, vitamins, minerals and healthy fats.

Twenty participants were involved in the University of Wisconsin-Madison study, which involved two different types of breakfasts. For the first fortnight, they had either a control breakfast or one containing 25g of powdered cricket meal made into muffins and shakes.

Each volunteer then reverted back to a normal diet for a two week ‘washout period’ in the middle of the study.

They then spent the last two weeks eating the breakfast they were not given in the first fortnight – either crickets or a control. Blood samples were collected from participants at the start, during and end of the study, published in Scientific Reports.

Meanwhile, the US researchers wanted to assess levels of blood glucose and enzymes, and for levels of TNF-alpha – a protein associated with inflammation.

And faecal samples were taken at the same time points to search for inflammatory chemicals in the gut and the make-up of the microbiota.

Anyone would pick a burger over a plateful of dried crickets. But according to a study in 2016, you should think twice before placing your order.

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